Tracker Scales and Key Frame Layouts
included in

The Golden Age of Automatic Musical Instruments
Appendix IV

In 1981, the Vestal Press published a landmark book on automatic musical instruments and their music, Treasures of Mechanical Music, by Reblitz and Bowers. Containing the most important tracker scales and key frame layouts for these instruments, with hundreds of black and white pictures, the book sold out very quickly and has been in demand by enthusiasts and restorers ever since. Used copies that have occasionally turned up on the market in recent years have fetched a price of over $200 each, with a record auction price of $525!

Finally, with the publishing of The Golden Age of Automatic Musical Instruments, the most important scales are once again available in one convenient source. These scales have been updated and corrected where new information has come to light, and supplemented with important discoveries such as the Welte 120-note orchestrion scale and a complete explanation of how the Hupfeld Violina Orchestra works.

Many German orchestrion and fairground organ scales are “scrambled,” with the notes not following the usual musical sequence. For the first time, The Golden Age of Automatic Musical Instruments includes unscrambled scales for all of the fairground organs, making it easier to compare their musical capabilities.

Each instrument’s unique sound comes from a combination of its design and the music arrangements. These scales explain what “raw materials” each arranger had to work with. After hearing an instrument and learning what it really sounds like, this technical material will be here for reference in helping to understand: how did they do that?


List of Tracker Bar Scales and Key Frame Layouts

Popular Mechanical Instruments:
  • Racca Piano Melodico
  • Street Piano with repeating Mandoline mechanism
  • Regina Sublima
European Orchestrions
  • Eich, Pierre: Solophone
  • Hupfeld Clavitist, Helios, Animatic, Sinfonie-Jazz, Pan Orchestra
  • Imhof & Mukle 58-key (Badenia, Lord, Tribute, etc.), 72-key (Valkyrie, Tell, etc.)
  • Lösche Flute and Violin Solo Piano, Orchestrion (Styles 1-K and others)
  • Philipps Pianella Mandoline (PM), Pianella Cecilia (PC), Pianella Paganini (PP)
  • Popper orchestrion
  • Weber Unika, Brabo/Styria/Otero, Maesto/Solea (early and late styles), Violano
  • Welte 75-hole Orchestrion (Cottage and Concert Orchestrion Styles 1-8), 100-hole Philharmonic, 100-hole Piano Orchestrion (P.O.), 100-hole Brass Band Orchestrion, 120-hole Orchestrion (for Concert Orchestrion Styles 9 and 10)
American “Nickelodeons” and Orchestrions
  • A rolls
  • Berry-Wood A.O.H.
  • Electrova 44
  • Encore Banjo
  • G & 4X: Seeburg G, KT, KT Special (early and late models); Nelson-Wiggen Style 6
  • Link A; RX & C
  • Marquette (Cremona) Style M
  • Mills Magnetic Expression Piano (Race Horse Piano)
  • National (roll changing piano)
  • North Tonawanda Pianolin, Sextrola & Capitol Bluebird Orchestra
  • Operators (Coinola) O; OS & NOS
  • Peerless D, 44, Elite, O
  • Resotone Grand
  • Seeburg H, XP (see also A, G & 4X above)
  • Wurlitzer Automatic Harp, Mandolin Quartette, Pianino, Bijou Orchestra, 65-note Automatic Player Piano, Concert PianOrchestra, Mandolin PianOrchestra, Paganini, Solo Violin Piano
Violin-Playing Machines
  • Hupfeld Phonoliszt-Violina, Violina Orchestra
  • Mills Novelty Company Violano-Virtuoso, Violano Orchestra
Reproducing Pianos, Player Pianos, Expression Pianos
  • 65-note Player Piano
  • 88-Note Player Piano
  • Aeolian Duo-Art
  • American Piano Co. Ampico A, Ampico B
  • Clark, Melville: Apollo X (Art-Apollo, QRS Autograph Automatic); Apollo Art-Echo
  • Hupfeld DEA, Phonoliszt, Triphonola
  • Philipps Duca (PD)
  • Recordo (issued under many different names)
  • Welte-Mignon Red (T-100), Licensee, Green (T-98)
European Fairground Organs
  • Bruder: Wilhelm Bruder Söhne 41-keyless (Style 78), Gebr. Bruder 42-keyless (Style 108), GB 43-keyless (Style 111), WBS 48-keyless (Style 79), GB 52-keyless (Style 107), GB 65-keyless (Elite-Orchestra Apollo), GB 67-keyless rolls (Style 109), GB 80-keyless (Style 104), GB 80-keyless (Elite-Orchestra Apollo), GB 94-keyless (Selection)
  • Frei, Carl: 35-keyless, 46-keyless, 72-keyless, 90-keyless
  • Gavioli 57-key, 65-key, 87-key, 87/89-key G1, G2, G3 and G4, 98-key, 110-key
  • Limonaire 50-key, 56-key, 66-key
  • Marenghi 89-key (VB)
  • Ruth 52-keyless (Style 33), 56-keyless (Style 34), 56-keyless (Ruth/Voigt Style 34 New), 67-keyless (Style 35), 78-keyless (Style 36), 92-keyless (Style 37), 96-keyless (Style 38), 96-keyless (Style 39)
  • van Steenput 97-key
  • Verbeeck, Pierre 75-key (“The Arab”)
European Dance Organs
  • Bursens (Arburo) 88-keyless rolls
  • Decap 72-key, 92-key, 105-key, 121-key
  • Gaudin 114-key
  • Mortier 84-key, 84-key (style 29), 101-key, 115-key (Mortier/Verbeeck)
American Band Organs and Calliopes
  • National Calliope
  • North Tonawanda Styles 137-159 (also Artizan Style A; B.A.B. 46), Styles 164-184 (B.A.B. 48/52), Styles 186-198 (Artizan Style D; B.A.B. 57/61), Styles E, 1100, 1110 (Artizan Style E; B.A.B. 82)
  • Wurlitzer 125, 150, 155 (Monster), 160 (Mammoth), 165, 180, Caliola
Photoplayers
  • American
  • Wurlitzer